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|Drug Name and Strength||Enrofloxacin 50mg|
|Indication||Primary indications for use in the dog and cat are as follows.Urinary tract infections including infections with Escherichia coli, Proteus sp., Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus sp. and group D Streptococcus.Respiratory infections including infections with E. coli, Streptococcus sp., Pasteurella sp., Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Bordetella bronchiseptica and Staphylococcus sp.Deep pyodermas caused by Staph. intermedius including those infected with secondary invaders.Wounds, abscesses and discharging sinuses.Baytril is especially useful in cats for treating serious antibiotic resistant infections of the respiratory tract or genitourinary system, particularly chronic urinary tract infections. In cats it is also useful for deep pyodermas, osteomyelitis and Gram-negative septicaemias.Baytril may also be used in exotic animals (small mammals, reptiles and avian species) for the treatment of bacterial infections of the alimentary and respiratory tracts, where clinical experience, supported where possible by sensitivity testing of the causal organism, indicates enrofloxacin as the drug of choice.|
|Contraindications||Dogs. The use of enrofloxacin is contraindicated in dogs during the rapid growth phase. Baytril should not be used in dogs under 1 year of age. Giant breeds may be in the rapid growth phase for up to 18 months. Care should be used in treating individuals of these breeds with Baytril when they are younger than 18 months. Cats. Baytril should not be used in cats less than 12 weeks of age. The safe use of enrofloxacin in breeding female cats has not been established.|
|Actions||Enrofloxacin is one of the synthetic quinolone carboxylic acid derivatives, which are also known as fluoroquinolones. It has antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including Mycoplasma sp. It is rapidly absorbed from the digestive tract, penetrating into all measured body tissues and fluids.Enrofloxacin exerts bactericidal activity by interaction with the A subunit of DNA gyrase in the target bacteria. DNA gyrase is a topoisomerase that controls bacterial replication, i.e. it catalyses supercoiling by rewinding and rejoining of chromosomal DNA strands. The fluoroquinolones also possess activity against bacteria in the stationary phase by an alteration of the permeability of the outer membrane phospholipid layer of the cell wall. These mechanisms of action explain the rapid loss of viability of susceptible bacteria. With enrofloxacin, inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations are closely correlated. They are identical or differ in many cases within a maximum of one or two dilution steps.Enrofloxacin possesses antimicrobial activity at low concentrations against most Gram-negative bacteria, many Gram-positive bacteria and against Mycoplasmas. Enrofloxacin is therefore active against the microorganisms that are primarily or secondarily involved in many of the infectious diseases that occur in small animals.Enrofloxacin penetrates into all canine and feline tissues and body fluids. Concentrations of the drug equal to or greater than the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for many pathogens are reached in most tissues within two hours of dosing and are maintained for eight hours after dosing. Particularly high levels of enrofloxacin are found in the urine.|
|Warnings||Do not use in food producing species of animals. For use in companion animals when culture and sensitivity testing indicates no suitable alternatives.|
|Precautions||Animal safety. Adult dogs. Dogs receiving enrofloxacin 12.5 mg/kg (2½ times the recommended dose) twice daily or 25 mg/kg (five times the recommended dose) daily for 28 and 30 days respectively showed no abnormalities. Dogs dosed at 52 mg/kg (ten times the recommended dose) for 13 weeks showed only isolated incidences of vomiting and inappetence.Dosages of 125 mg/kg (25 times the recommended dose) are toxic and may be lethal if given repeatedly. Growing dogs. Oral treatment of 15 to 28 week old growing puppies with daily dosages of 25 mg/kg has induced abnormal carriage of the carpal joint and weakness in the hindquarters. However, significant improvement of clinical signs is observed following drug withdrawal. Microscopic studies have identified lesions of the articular cartilage following 30 day treatments at either 5, 15 or 25 mg/kg in this age group. General safety. Tests indicated no effect on circulating microfilariae or adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis). Baytril has no effect on cholinesterase levels. Reproduction. No abnormalities in reproductive parameters were observed when male dogs received ten consecutive daily treatments of 15 mg/kg/day at three intervals (90, 45 and 14 days) prior to breeding; nor when female dogs received ten consecutive daily treatments of 15 mg/kg/day at the following four intervals: between 30 and 0 days prior to breeding, early pregnancy (between the 10th and 30th days), late pregnancy (between the 40th and 60th days), and during lactation (the first 28 days). Adult cats. Cats receiving enrofloxacin 50 mg/kg (10 times the recommended dose) for six days showed clinical signs of vomiting, inappetence, incoordination and convulsions, but returned to normal on withdrawal of the drug. Dosages of 125 mg/kg (25 times the recommended dose) for five consecutive days induced vomiting, depression, incoordination and may lead to death. Growing cats. Cats of 3 to 4 months and 7 to 10 months of age received daily treatments of 25 mg/kg (5 times the recommended dose) for 30 consecutive days with no adverse effects.Occasional vomiting was seen in 7 to 10 month old cats during 30 days of consecutive dosing at 5, 15 or 25 mg/kg. Growing kittens 5 to 7 months old showed articular cartilage lesions when dosed with 25 mg/kg (5 times the recommended dose) for 30 days but no lesions were seen at 15 mg/kg (3 times the recommended dose) for 30 days. Exotic species. In the absence of data on its use in some exotic species, caution should be used when prescribing during pregnancy or lactation in small mammals, and a careful risk–benefit assessment made.Disposal Dispose of used packaging by wrapping in paper and placing in garbage.|
|Dosage and Administration||Dogs, cats. The optimum dose of Baytril in dogs and cats is 5 mg/kg bodyweight administered once daily. Baytril 50 Antibacterial Tablets. 1 tablet/10 kg bodyweight/day. Baytril 150 Antibacterial Tablets. 1 tablet/30 kg bodyweight/day.Baytril should be given for two to three days beyond the cessation of clinical signs. Baytril Injectable Solution may be used as the initial dose (see product information for Baytril Injectable, Section 3(a)(ii)). If no improvement is seen within five days, the diagnosis should be re-evaluated and a different course of therapy considered.Exotic species. Small mammals. 5 mg/kg subcutaneously or orally, twice daily for seven days. Reptiles. 5 mg/kg intramuscularly or orally, at 24 to 48 hour intervals for six days. Avian species. 10 mg/kg intramuscularly or orally, twice daily for seven days.Treatment may be initiated with Baytril Injection and should if possible, be maintained with Baytril Oral Solution or Tablets as appropriate. The use of tuberculin or insulin syringes and/or dilution of Baytril Injection with sterile water for injection should be considered for administration of very small volumes.In all species, the injection site should be varied when multiple injections are given.|
|Storage||Store below 30°C (room temperature).|
|MSDS (external link)||Baytril 50mg Tablets 100'S MSDS|
|Label (external link)||Baytril 50mg Tablets 100'S Label|
|Manufacturer||Bayer Australia Ltd|