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|Drug Name and Strength||Flunixin (as meglumine) 50 mg/mL|
|Indication||Flunixil inhibits the wide ranging effects of prostaglandins within the body and therefore has many clinical uses in veterinary medicine. General. Potent antipyretic; endotoxic/septic shock; antiplatelet therapy; accident cases, e.g. shock, trauma; heatstroke. Musculoskeletal conditions. Alleviation of pain and inflammation that often causes lameness, discomfort or recumbency, e.g. arthritis, intervertebral disc disease, navicular disease, contusions, abrasions, carpitis, tendinitis, gonitis, footrot, cellulitis, myositis, laminitis, etc; suppression of postoperative swelling and lameness. Gastrointestinal conditions. Restoration of normal peristalsis by relieving spasm of the smooth muscle, e.g. acute foal/calf/piglet (coliform) diarrhoea, parvovirus infection of dogs; visceral analgesia; reduction of arterial hypoxaemia, lactic acidosis, colic and diarrhoea resulting from the prostaglandin released by damage to the intestinal endothelium; relief of pain associated with equine colic, preventing self-injury and affording the clinician the means to a safe and thorough examination of the animal; reduction of prostacycline induced vasodilation and visceral pooling of blood in serious abdominal crises prior to exploratory laparotomy; inhibition of the effects of endotoxin. Ocular conditions. Control of painful ocular conditions, e.g. injury, uveitis and keratitis; control of ocular swelling before and after certain surgical procedures such as cataract removal. Respiratory conditions. Reduction of shock associated pulmonary hypertension.|
|Contraindications||Administration to cats; administration to foals within 72 hours of birth.|
|Actions||Flunixil is a potent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic and antipyretic activity for use in horses, cattle, pigs and dogs.Pharmacology Flunixil is an antiprostaglandin agent which acts to constrain the inflammatory process and provide concomitant relief of pain and fever. It acts to inhibit the enzyme cyclooxygenase which is necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid. These arachidonic acid metabolites invoke various aspects of the inflammatory process: vasodilation, increased vascular permeability, pain sensation, inflammatory cell attraction/activation, fever due to the raising of the hypothalamic set point, and platelet aggregation. The inhibition achieved with flunixin meglumine is virtually complete, making it one of the most potent NSAIDs.|
|Warnings||Foals should not be treated within their first 72 hours of life.Slight irritation may follow intramuscular injection in young animals, or if it is injected too superficially into older animals. Flunixil should not be mixed with other compounds. Extra-arterial injection should be avoided. The effects of Flunixil on pregnancy have not yet been determined.|
|Precautions||All NSAIDs have the potential for toxic reactions which can usually be attributed to their blockage of prostaglandin synthesis. These include gastric and intestinal ulceration, nephrotoxicity and decreased platelet aggregation. Gastrointestinal toxicity. Gastric or intestinal ulceration is the most common adverse effect of flunixin meglumine. Prostaglandin blockage can lead to increased gastric acid secretion, and reduction of the secretion of protective mucus and bicarbonate. Signs of ulceration are inappetence, vomiting, diarrhoea, and blood in the stools (this may be occult). Owners should be warned to watch for such signs. Concurrent use of steroids can exacerbate the potential for toxicity. Provided the correct dose is not exceeded, and the treatment period is within the recommended time limits, toxicity is not normally a problem. Some individual animals, however, may show greater sensitivity. Cessation of treatment will reverse any gastrointestinal side effects. Renal toxicity. Prostaglandins are involved in a number of renal physiological processes, including autoregulation of renal blood flow, glomerular filtration, tubular ion transport, modulation of renin release, and water metabolism. Renal prostaglandin blockade by flunixin meglumine is usually of little consequence in healthy animals. In the presence of certain disease states, however, toxicity may occur, e.g. congestive heart failure, cirrhosis and pre-existing renal insufficiency. Also, concurrent administration of other drugs affecting renal function or blood flow may lead to renal toxicity, e.g. anaesthesia. Flunixil treatment should be stopped 1 to 2 days prior to induction of anaesthesia, and fluids should be administered intravenously during anaesthesia to support renal blood flow. Care should be taken when treating older animals with possible impaired renal function. Haematopoietic toxicity. Prolongation of bleeding time as a result of inhibition of platelet aggregation by flunixin meglumine may be a problem in animals with bleeding tendencies, e.g. von Willebrand's disease, other coagulation disorders, or gastrointestinal ulceration.|
|Dosage and Administration||Horses. 1.1 mg/kg (1 mL/45 kg) bodyweight intravenously or intramuscularly once daily for up to 5 days. Cattle. 2.2 mg/kg (2 mL/45 kg) bodyweight intravenously once daily for 3 to 5 days. Pigs. 2.2 mg/kg (2 mL/45 kg) bodyweight intramuscularly. Repeat hourly if required for up to 3 doses. Dogs. 1 mg/kg (0.5 mL/25 kg) bodyweight intravenously once daily for up to 3 days.|
|Storage||Store below 30°C (room temperature).|
|MSDS (external link)||Flunixil 100ml MSDS|
|Label (external link)||Flunixil 100ml Label|
|Manufacturer||Ilium Veterinary Products|