Mucoprim Oral Powder 250gm
Trimethoprim 86 mg/g,
Bromhexine hydrochloride 8.6 mg/g
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|Drug Name and Strength||Sulfadimidine 430 mg/g,|
Trimethoprim 86 mg/g,
Bromhexine hydrochloride 8.6 mg/g
|Indication||Treatment of respiratory infections in horses due to organisms susceptible to the combination of sulfadimidine and trimethoprim.|
|Actions||Microbiology Sulfadimidine and trimethoprim have similar antibacterial spectra, trimethoprim being approximately twenty times more potent than sulfadimidine. The combination blocks two sequential obligate enzymatic reactions in the microbial folate synthetic pathway. A synergistic action is demonstrated by the enhanced antimicrobial activity (potentiation) of the combination, compared with the antimicrobial activity of either agent singly. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the combination for susceptible bacteria are substantially lower than those of either of the individual agents. The combination of sulfonamide and trimethoprim is bactericidal while either drug alone is bacteriostatic. Folate synthesising bacteria which are resistant or moderately resistant to either drug alone are frequently susceptible to the combination.The correlation of antibacterial sensitivity in vitro compared with in vivo is among the highest of all antimicrobial agents. The spectrum of bacteria sensitive to the combination includes Staphylococci, Streptococci, Fusobacterium, Enterobacter, Corynebacterium (excluding Corynebacterium (Rhodoccus) equi), Salmonella, Shigella, Klebsiella, Pasteurella, Haemophilus, Proteus sp. and most Escherichia coli, and some Brucella and Nocardia sp. Most Pseudomonas sp. are insensitive.Resistance to the combination by Gram-negative bacteria is associated with the presence of R Factors. Resistance by Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus sp. is chromosomal, and is rarely encountered except in patients previously exposed to the combination.Pharmacology Sulfadimidine. Sulfadimidine is a pyrimidine sulfonamide antimicrobial agent. Sulfonamides, being structural analogues of PABA (para-aminobenzoic acid), competitively inhibit the incorporation of PABA into dihydropteric acid, the precursor of folic acid. The subsequent reduction in the level of folic acid reduces the production of nucleic acids in sensitive bacteria. Mammalian cells require preformed folic acid and thus are unaffected by sulfonamides. The antibacterial actions of sulfonamides are reduced in the presence of blood, pus and tissue breakdown products, which contain purines and thymidine, as the bacterial requirement for folic acid is decreased in such media. Trimethoprim. Trimethoprim is a diaminopyrimidine antimicrobial agent. It acts by preventing the reduction of dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate which is required by bacteria for biosynthesis of purines, pyrimidines and some amino acids. Bromhexine. Bromhexine hydrochloride is a synthetic derivative of the alkaloid vasicine. Bromhexine acts selectively on mucopolysaccharide producing goblet cells in the respiratory tract to a far greater extent than in other organs. Its action is threefold. (1) Bromhexine causes depolymerisation of mucopolysaccharide, reducing viscosity and tenacity of respiratory mucus. This facilitates expectoration and suppresses tussive irritation. Increased production of highly viscous bronchial and alveolar secretion is not only a clinical sign of, but also an exacerbating factor in, respiratory disease. Disordered ciliary function and difficult expectoration set up a vicious cycle in which mucus tenacity may lead to chronic bronchitis. Bromhexine is a specific agent to prevent this complication. It has a minimal secretolytic effect where mucus viscosity is initially low. (2) Bromhexine increases the permeability of the alveolar–capillary barrier. This increases the concentration of antibacterial agents in respiratory secretions, obtaining a greater luminal dose effect at the site of the disease. (3) There are specific protein changes in bronchial secretion following bromhexine administration. After 2 to 3 days there is a significant increase in γ-globulin and a decline in albumin and α-globulin. The γ-globulins which increase are IgA and IgG. IgM is unchanged.Pharmacokinetics Sulfadimidine. Sulfadimidine is readily absorbed following oral administration, and therapeutic plasma levels are rapidly attained. Sulfadimidine is widely distributed to all body tissues and fluids. Concentrations are above plasma levels in the kidney; similar to plasma levels in pleural, peritoneal, synovial and ocular fluids; and slightly lower in cerebrospinal fluid, muscle and milk.Sulfadimidine undergoes extensive metabolism via acetylation, hydroxylation, oxidation and conjugation. The parent compound and its metabolites are excreted predominantly in the urine by glomerular filtration. Sulfadimidine undergoes passive tubular resorption, thus prolonging the time course of drug action. Plasma half-life in the horse has been variously estimated as between 6.4 and 9.8 hours. Trimethoprim. Trimethoprim is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and, like sulfadimidine, rapidly reaches therapeutic levels in plasma. It is widely distributed in body tissues/fluids including bone, prostate, CSF, pleural, peritoneal, synovial and ocular fluids. Studies in humans and several animal species have demonstrated that trimethoprim reaches higher concentrations in all tissues, except brain, than those achieved in plasma.Trimethoprim is extensively metabolised in the horse and is excreted in the urine by glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Plasma half-life in the horse has been variously estimated as between 4.1 hours and 4.6 hours. Bromhexine. Bromhexine is rapidly absorbed following oral administration, peak plasma levels being reached within approximately 1 hour. It is lipophilic and is rapidly redistributed from plasma into respiratory, liver and adipose tissue. Bromhexine undergoes extensive hepatic metabolism and is excreted via the urine and bile.|
|Dosage and Administration||For oral use only. Administer on dampened food or mixed with honey or molasses. One level scoop contains sulfadimidine 5 g, trimethoprim 1 g and bromhexine hydrochloride 100 mg. Horses. One level scoop/ 200 kg bodyweight twice daily.|
|Storage||Store below 30°C (room temperature). Protect from light.|
|MSDS (external link)||Mucoprim Oral Powder 250gm MSDS|
|Label (external link)||Mucoprim Oral Powder 250gm Label|
|Manufacturer||Ilium Veterinary Products|